16 September 2014

Israeli Navy Hybrid HF Modem

This system is used by Israeli Navy, more likely from 4XZ station in Haifa, and it's quite easy to hear. The waveform is composed of  3 parts: a four tones (2 seconds length) preamble, the parallel-data part using QPSK modulation in channels at 75Bd speed and the final serial-data part according to the MIL 188-110 single tone (1800Hz carrier modulated with PSK-8 at 2400Bd). A variant with an added 230ms pre-tone at 1000Hz has been seen.
Since the low data-rate, the apparent ACF is 66.6 ms.

14 September 2014

Russian Naval Air Transport / Naval Aviation (M32b/RNAv)

Russian Navy   Russian Naval Air Transport / Naval Aviation   Russian Navy Morse
This short text does not claim to be complete or exact, it is just an attempt to collect and consolidate sparse notes about the Rus Navy way to Morse. I did examined my own logs, browse some Navy and Defense websites, mainly from Russia, N&O columns / Spooks newsletters, public available sources and public sites/forums on the web (later reported). You have to know that this document is always-under-construction and may be outdated, incomplete or even wrong. Comments are welcome.

The Russian Naval Aviation (Aviatsiya Voenno-morskogo Flota Rossii) is the air arm of the Russian Navy, having superseded the Soviet Naval Aviation.
The air forces of the most important fleets, the Northern and Pacific fleets, operate long range Tu-142 anti-submarine warfare aircraft and Il-38 medium-range ASW aircraft. Formations operating supersonic Tu-22M3 bombers were transferred to the Russian Air Force's Long Range Aviation in 2011. The relatively small fleets, the Baltic and Black Sea, currently have only tactical Su-24 bombers and ASW helicopters in service. The small Caspian Flotilla operates An-26 and Mi-8 transports, Ka-27PS rescue helicopters, as well as some Ka-29 and Mi-24 armed helicopters.
On July 15, 2014, a modernised version of the Ilyushin 38N anti-submarine plane was officially delivered to the Russian Navy. 

Naval aviation has a functional division into the following branches: Naval missile-carrying aviation, ASW (anti-submarine warfare) aviation, Attack aviation, Reconnaissance aviation and Auxiliary air units (of airborne early warning defense, electronic warfare, counter mining, guidance and communication support, aircraft fueling in flight, SAR, transport support and ambulance aviation).
Naval Aviation units are based in aerodromes and aircraft cruisers, divided into Shipborne and Shore-based Aviation.

As of 2012, the only fixed wing strike and fighter aircraft of Russian Naval Aviation are the Su-33 fighters and Su-25UTG attack aircraft of the 279th Regiment (forming the Admiral Kuznetsov's carrier air wing), plus the Su-24 bombers based in the Crimea. This sole bomber unit remained part of Naval Aviation as an exception to satisfy treaty requirements governing Russian forces deployments on Ukrainian territory (these must be part of the Black Sea Fleet). Buying brand new multirole Sukhoi Su-30SM for the Black Sea Fleet to replace Su-24 is in the planning stages. 
Naval aviation also retains the anti-submarine aircraft of the forces (the Tu-142 and the Il-38) and the helicopter arm.


4198.5, 8131, 8816, 11354 kHz
Modes: CW + USB (voice)


Below are the approaches I found, callsigns actually are in use. The allocations would make sense, but are absolutely not confirmed. 

RJF94 (tactical PROBOJ)
HQ Naval Air Transport - Moscow

RJC48 (tactical NORKA)    
Naval Air Transport Southern Sector / Black Sea Fleet Naval Aviation
South Crimea region, 7057th Airbase, Gvardeskoye and Kacha

RCB (tactical KRAKET)   
Naval Air Transport Western Sector / Baltic Fleet Naval Aviation
West Kaliningrad region, several airfields possible
Bases in Chkalovsk, Nivenskoye and Bykhov

RJC38 (tactical NOVATOR)    
Naval Air Transport Northern Sector / Northern Fleet Naval Aviation
Murmansk or Sevoromorsk
Bases in Olenia, Arkhangelsk, Severomorsk, Kipelovo

RCH84 (tactical MONOLOG)    
Naval Air Transport Eastern Sector / Pacific Fleet Naval Aviation
Wladivostok Region.  Airfield of Knevichi
Bases in Petropavlovsk, Sovetskaya, Gavan 

NCS station Moscow, has contact with many Navy stations


* aircraft carrying cruiser "Admiral Kuznetsov"
the carrier (the only one of the Russian Navy) should have the callsign RKO81, but it's not absolutely confirmed. 

* Airport 
callsigns were 3-figure-codes in the past, today they give either normal ICAO Uxxx  codes or internal Xxxx codes (Xxxx is the same code as Uxxx).

5 digit callsigns of aircraft correspond to the registration number and can be identified in most cases (only valid for Naval Air Transport fleet)


Simplex contacts with aircraft (5 figure codes) with flight status reports. They mix common ITU-Q-codes (e.g. QRE, QTH, QTR etc) and ICAO-codes (as QAY, QBG, etc) with internal codes (e.g. QQL, QQM).

QTC I have message for you.
QRV I am ready.
QTO I am airborne or I started at ... (hours).
QTR The time is ... (UTC used).
QRD I am bound for ... from ... .
QRE Estimated time of arrival at/over ... (place)is ... (time).
QAH Flight level/altitude is ... (in meters or barometric pressure)
QQL I have passed ... (place) at ... (time).
QBD Fuel endurance is ... (hours and minutes).
QAL  I estimate to land in ... (place) at ... (time).
QQM I will land in ... (place) at ... (time).

Message samples about aircraft (47944) working with Kaliningrad (RCB):

47944 QAY UWMS 1405 K
47944 passed UMWS (= Smorgon) at 1405 hrs

RCB asks to repeat the location

RCB de 47944 QAY UMWS 1405 QAH 5500 QAL XMWS 1500 QBD 0230 K
47944 informs RCB that it passed UMWS at 1405 hrs and further its height (QAH) : 5500 metres its estimated time of arrival (QAL) in Kaliningrad (XMWB) at 1500 hrs and the amount of fuel (QBD) “My fuel endurance is 2 hours and 30 minutes”

Russian Navy   Russian Naval Air Transport / Naval Aviation   Russian Navy Morse

Sources and References: